This module is the core of the library. It creates a simulation of an arduino program in that it lets you have a setup() and a loop(). It does everything transparently, including scheduling the executions of loop() and checks messages over the network from time to time. It utilizes Python’s newest asyncio feature to ensure maximum performance.

All you need to do is to wrap your code inside

from crh_botnet import *

# You should substitute this with the actual addresses,
# which should include the port number if necessary

def setup():
    # your code goes into here

def loop():
    # your code goes into here
    # you can delete this function if nothing would go inside

And you are good to go. Don’t worry about what the globals() is doing there. It’s what it takes (quite literally) to make the magic work.


Never use time.sleep() inside your functions! It will break things. If you want a delay, use asyncio.sleep() and read Async Flavored Functions.

A few things should be noticed:

  1. The robot variable should be constructed before everything else.

  2. Nothing should be placed after Well, you could, they just won’t be executed.

  3. You don’t have to put anything into the loop() and setup() if you don’t want to. In fact, they don’t have to be defined at all.

Running The Robot

When running the robot, you can pass in several options. The most important ones are offline and debug.

If don’t have a server setup, you can ask the robot to run under offline mode. Of course, in this case, no network related function will work (and you will probably get a bunch of errors if you try to use them)., offline=True)

If you ever wonder what’s going on in this library, setting debug to True is probably a good thing to do., debug=True)

Refer to for more details.

Collected Functions


This part of the documentation uses the word coroutine, coroutine function, and async function interchangeably. If you don’t know what it is, you can read section Async Flavored Functions for a quick introduction.

When run() is called, the following functions will be collected (from the namespace passed to run):

They default to do nothing if not defined.


This function will be called exactly once, after connecting to the robot network. and before the first execution of loop(). All variables defined inside setup() will be injected back to the global namespace. Unlike other collected functions, this function cannot be a coroutine.


The collected loop function. It is called once every 50 ms by default. You can change the frequency by calling set_looping_interval().

If you want to have control over the looping time, or adding custom delay here and there, you can mark the loop as asynchronous with the async keyword. For example:


async def loop():
    global c
    if c % 100 == 0:
        await sleep(0.5)

You can set the looping_interval to be 0, in that case, the loop is called as many times as possible (2007584 times per second, tested on a Macbook Pro), and it is your responsibility to call sleep() if desired. For your convenience, the sleep function is imported at the top level of crh_botnet and is included when you execute from crh_botnet import *.


Don’t forget the await before sleep().


This function is called when a new message has arrived. It takes a single argument, which is a message.Message object. It can be either a coroutine function or a regular function.


This function is called during the shutdown sequence, before the robot disconnects from the network. You can use it to perform some clean up or send a last second goodbye message to another beloved robot (which you shouldn’t have to because they can see if you are offline). It can be either a coroutine function or a regular function.

Async Flavored Functions

All collected functions can be optionally marked as a coroutine function with the special keyword async before the function definition.

What Is await?

When your program hits a line with await, the control flow of the program is transferred back to the event loop, which is called a context switch. This is a fairly complicated concept and is outside of the scope of this documentation.

For the particular case of await sleep, it is basically equivalent to that your program gives up the control of the CPU for that particular time period. For example, if you have this function

async def loop():
    # do something

    await sleep(0.05)

    # do something else

Every time the loop hits line 4, it is instructing the Python interpreter that “I voluntarily give up the control of the CPU for 0.05 seconds, you are free to do whatever you want for 0.05 seconds.” (This is called a voluntary context switch.) During this 0.05 seconds, the control is transferred back to the event loop, which is managed by this library. The library will use the time to check whether a new message has arrived (and if so, invoke the on_message() handler) , send out messages scheduled with send(), etc.

If you are still not sure how to use this package, checkout some examples.